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Monday, December 13, 2010

Salvin's Spiny Pocket Mouse (Liomys salvini) I

The most abundant of the terrestrial rodents (mice and rats) in Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve is probably Salvin's Spiny Pocket Mouse (Liomys salvini). Near houses, their principal competitor appears to be the House Mouse (Mus musculus), which is an exotic, invasive species. Liomys salvini lives in underground burrows with many entrances, and the terrain of the volcanic crater interior in Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve is ideal habitat for this species. We even have a family living in the yard of Estacion Biologica!

Pocket mice can be identified by the foot pads, as shown above. Pocket mice can carry food in pouches in their cheeks, allowing for rapid foraging with ingestion occuring later. We are investigating the diets, population, and distribution patterns of this species in Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve.

We are seeking volunteers who would like to assist in our studies of the rodents of Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve. Would you like to participate? Please contact us.  

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Friday, December 10, 2010

Video-endemic fish species in Laguna de Apoyo

Six fish species are known to inhabit only Laguna de Apoyo. Our research group at FUNDECI/GAIA in collaboration with scientists from US and Europe discovered five of those six, and we have a few other taxa targeted for species recognition from this lake. We are conducting a long-term fish population monitoring project in Lake Apoyo, in part to provide information about the populations of each species in order to assure their continued existence. We gather this date while SCUBA diving. See the film of one of those dives, below.

Volunteer divers participate in monthly monitoring of fish transects in Laguna de Apoyo.

The fish species found in Lake Apoyo are:

Amphilophus astorquii^
Amphilophus chancho^
Amphilophus flaveolus^
Amphilophus globosus^
Amphilophus supercilius^
Amphilophus zaliosus^
Parachromis managuensis
Poecilia sphenops
Atherinella sardina
Gobiomorus dormitor*
Oreochromis aureus*
Oreochromis niloticus*
^-endemic to Laguna de Apoyo
*-recently introduced by human activity
The volunteers and staff at Estacion Biologica FUNDECI/GAIA are conducting long-term fish population monitoring in a program that encourages "citizen participation". Certified divers can join us in the dives and help us collect data. 

Our work has led to more than a dozen scientific publications on the fishes of Laguna de Apoyo, and five species of fish have been discovered by our staff in this lake. Furthermore, one of these species, the arrow cichlid (Amphilophus zaliosus), has recently been listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Would you like to help us monitor and protect the endangered fishes of Lake Apoyo? Certified Open Water divers are welcome to join us in this vital work to protect the natural heritage of this beautiful lake. Please contact us for more details.

Dive Nicaragua
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Friday, December 3, 2010

Scenes from Laguna de Apoyo by Cindy Skeie

Cindy Skeie is a professional photographer and nature lover. She studied Spanish at Laguna de Apoyo Spanish School, and then volunteered with us several days in the documentation of the awesome scenery in Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve. We hope you appreciate her photos.

Laguna de Apoyo

Laguna de Apoyo

Laguna de Apoyo

Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve

Laguna de Apoyo Nicaragua

Laguna de Apoyo

Laguna de Apoyo

Laguna de Apoyo birdwatching
Laguna de Apoyo photography
Laguna de Apoyo nature

Nicaragua Laguna de Apoyo

photography Laguna de Apoyo

Lake Apoyo Nicaragua

See more of Cindy's great photography at To see more about our research on butterflies, click here

photography nature
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Monday, November 29, 2010

Amphilophus astorquii in a multispecies school

Lake Apoyo is populated by several endemic fish species. These fish species have all derived from the Midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus) in Lake Nicaragua. Being a volcanic crater lake, it is isolated completely from other bodies of water. The first discovery of a fish endemic to Lake Apoyo occurred in 1976, while others have been discovered in 2008, and in 2010, and yet more are to be discovered. Estacion Biologica FUNDECI/GAIA conducts a monitoring program which keeps track of the fish populations and other environmental aspects of Lake Apoyo. Here is a photographic summary of the past week's monitoring, thanks to our SCUBA dive buddy Balazs Lerner, as he and our technician dive Laguna de Apoyo.
amphilophus astorquii

How many species do you see in this photo? All the fish in this photo are endemic species from the Midas cichlid species complex. It was taken at about 35 feet depth (11 meters), in Lake Apoyo, while SCUBA diving.  And yes, there are several species in this photo. This season's breeding is just beginning in Lake Apoyo, but most of the fish in this frame have not begun breeding behavior. We count fish and nests monthly in the lake.

Dive Nicaragua
This is an excellent example of Amphilophus astorquii, the Little Apoyo Cichlid. It was named after Father Ignacio Astorquii, a Spanish biologist and Jesuit priest who dedicated his scientific efforts to the fishes of the Nicaraguan Great Lakes watershed, which includes Lake Apoyo. This fish is in basic (i.e. nonbreeding) coloration.

dive Lake Apoyo
A mixed-species school of Amphilophus cichlids.

underwater photography

This fish suffers from cataracts, likely induced by parasite infection. We are monitoring the environmental health of the lake as well, as blindness is related the recent introduction of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) into Lake Apoyo.

Midas cichlid species flock
Ascending at the end of another dive. Job well done!
You can help us continue to discover and protect rare species of fish in Nicaragua by participating in our monitoring program as a volunteer or by making a financial contribution. You can accompany us on a monitoring dive (certified SCUBA divers, of course), also. The fish of Lake Apoyo are in danger of extinction, and your contribution to our efforts helps us inform the Nicaraguan government and international scientific community regarding the conservation status of these species. Please give (via PayPal) to our program! Thank you!

Dive Laguna de Apoyo
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Friday, November 5, 2010

Un-real Estate III: Developers threaten Laguna de Apoyo

Once again, developers are trying to build more houses in Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve. Friday, October 28, the staff of FUNDECI/GAIA attended a presentation of a proposed construction of twelve houses in Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve. The people making the presentation wore nametags "Huellas del Camino", but questions were raised regarding whether this was yet another attempt on the part of the developers who destroyed many hectares in the failed attempt to build houses in "Finca Los Congos". Although the developers were stopped by unanimous decision of the National Assembly and the Ministry for the Environment, they continue to sell lots in their website.

The local community was outraged by the prospect of more houses in the reserve, and they made their voices heard:
Nicaragua real estate

You can read more about this meeting in La Prensa and in El Nuevo Diario.

Nicaragua real estate is subject to foreign influences which do not always respect issues such as protected areas. Laguna de Apoyo needs more protection, not more houses for foreigners!

If you would like to keep Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve pristine and natural, please contact us and help us make our opinions a united force against the attacks of unscrupulous real estate developers. There are conscientious real estate agents, so check carefully. Does your real estate agent tell you that building is not permitted in Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve? 

Nicaragua real estate
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Wednesday, November 3, 2010

Un-real Estate II: "Developers" Threaten Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve

This article appeared in El Nuevo Diario November 3, 2010. The other side of Nicaragua real estate is not always pretty. Many investors have Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve in their crosshairs, and they won't stop unless the government and the civil society keeps their position clear. It is unfortunate that a few developers insist on destroying natural areas for their personal gain, when many potential investors would be willing to be involved in Nicaragua if controls were stronger.

Otro atentado contra el patrimonio natural

END - -

El pasado viernes, asistí a una presentación final de consulta pública para un propuesto proyecto habitacional en la Reserva Natural Laguna de Apoyo. Nuestro respetado colega Giovanny Carranza explicó detalles de construcción, planes arquitecturales y tratamiento de aguas servidas por más de una hora a una audiencia de unos cuatrocientas personas, en el pueblo San Juan de Oriente, acompañado por música, ahuizotes y refrescos a un pueblo que casi nunca tiene tanta ocasión por fanfarrón.

Me parecía un proyecto idóneo para Nicaragua. Muchos detalles se habrían tomado en cuenta: materiales, diseños, caminos, promesas de compromiso social y ambiental, progreso, y empleo. Todo se veía demasiado bueno. Se habló de cumplimiento de leyes, códigos y reglamentos, pero en ningún momento, se quedó sin mencionar que el proyecto es propuesto dentro de la Reserva Natural Laguna de Apoyo, por lo cual aplican severas restricciones sobre el uso de la tierra, incluyendo la prohibición de construcción de habitaciones. En vez de hablar de cómo se cumple el propuesto proyecto con las normas que pertenecen a la Reserva, se prometió dedicar gran parte de la propiedad del área del proyecto a una reserva ecológica privada.

Mientras se presentaron datos, dimensiones, colores de paredes, materiales de construcción, yo reflexioné en la reciente historia de este sitio. Una vez un sitio de retiro para los antepasados de los nicaragüenses, se encontró bajo la lupa de Somoza en los 1960, cuando él y unos cuantos más construyeron un camino vehicular y las primeras casas en su orilla. Como siempre, se prometió progreso y desarrollo, pero cada vez más, los riachuelos se secaron, las costas se alejaron, haciendo más difícil el acceso del pueblo a sus aguas. A pesar de las buenas intenciones del Dr. Jaime Incer cuando el sitio fue nombrado parte del Sistema Nacional de Areas Protegidas en 1991, llegó otro gran proyecto habitacional, permitido por el alcalde de San Juan de Oriente y bendecido por el otrora presidente Bolaños, otra vez prometiendo empleo y progreso.

Las propiedades de la laguna de Apoyo comenzaron a caer en picada, víctimas de la sensibilidad ambiental de las faldas volcánicas y la sistémica injusticia legal que perjudica a los pobres en este país. Los dueños de lotes y parcelas, en su mayoría campesinos de los Pueblos Blancos, fueron prohibidos de construir casas o hacer casi cualquier “mejora” a su propiedad. Sin embargo, algunos especuladores, principalmente (pero no en su totalidad) extranjeros, lanzaron una estrategia comprensiva en comprar las propiedades de la laguna de Apoyo en precios bajos. Los pobres no tienen acceso a la justicia, pero los “cheles”, sí. De repente, aparecían páginas web con precios de venta de las mismas propiedades, con promesas de construir. Casas aparecieron mágicamente, nadie sabía quien dio permiso a quien. Un muro de dos kilómetros de largo por la costa, un bajadero lujoso, rótulos de lotes en venta aparecía en el sector de Granada. Celadores armados comenzaron a rodear con radios. Otro proyecto prometedor en Diriá, y un estudio de impacto ambiental que parecía mentira, porque la era. Los de Diriá prometieron sembrar cincuenta mil árboles, pero en verdad, mandaron a cortar igual número sin ningún permiso, por lo cual los acusamos delante de MARENA y la Asamblea Nacional.

El problema con el proyecto presentado es que ya estamos cansados de escuchar promesas que no se pueden cumplir. Si de verdad quieren no dañar el medio ambiente, ¿porqué no comenzaron con el Plan de Manejo que ha sido aprobado para la Reserva? Ahí pueden observar que el sitio donde han propuesto construir es designado de alto valor a la naturaleza, y de pendientes inapropiadas para construir, por lo cual ha sido declarado NO APTO para construcciones. El Plan de Manejo para la Reserva Natural Laguna de Apoyo amerita especial mención por la cantidad de consultas públicas y técnicas que se hicieron, cubriendo un período hasta de cuatro años entre el inicio de su elaboración hasta su aprobación.

Si en verdad los inversionistas quieren hacer un proyecto social y ambientalmente favorable, lo pueden hacer y nadie los impide. Hay tres opciones factibles. Pueden hacer el mismo proyecto en la zona de amortiguamiento de la Reserva Natural Laguna de Apoyo, donde se encuentra los cascos urbanos, comarcas y fincas de cuatro pueblos. O bien si lo quieren hacer dentro de la Reserva, pueden comprar cualquier cantidad de casas vacías y en abandono total en la orilla de la laguna, y rehabilitarlas con todas las normas que fueron presentadas el viernes. Desde la Estación Biológica donde trabajo, al norte, se encuentran ocho casas consecutivas, abandonadas, con rótulos ”For Sale”. Sería muy interesante reactivar estas casas y ponerlas todas las nuevas tecnologías verdes que se hablaba en la presentación. Así no tendría que cambiar un solo metro cuadrado de techado.

Igualmente, pueden comprar las 65 casas en el desarrollo habitacional que se encuentra triste, vacío, sin vida. Los dueños extranjeros en su mayoría quieren vender sus casas y olvidar de las promesas no cumplidas que les dieron al comprar. Esta idea me parece fabulosa. El potencial de convertir las “cabañas ecológicas” en estructuras con nueva vida tiene mucho potencial.

Pero cómo pueden venir a decir a la gente de ahí, los locales que han caminado y arado esas tierras por generaciones, que “no vamos a cortar un solo árbol”? Por favor! No hay lugar en la Reserva Natural Laguna de Apoyo que se encuentra naturalmente sin árboles a distancia de aproximadamente un metro, o si no, es porque alguien haya alterado la faz de la tierra. Si no hay árboles sobre dichas tierras, es porque algún obrero fue mandado a cortarlos y mantener las tierras limpias.

Los comentarios de los ciudadanos incluyeron la preocupación por la economía local. Me parece que los consejos municipales, Marena y la Asamblea Nacional deben seguir buscando cómo recaudar y distribuir tributos en una manera equitativa. Es cierto que Catarina beneficia más por razones históricas, y otros pueblos no pueden gozar de los mismos beneficios económicos. Hacen falta herramientas fiscales justas para que San Juan de Oriente pueda percibir progreso sin destruir sus bosques.

Al final, me pregunto: ¿porqué siguen insistiendo en construir donde Marena y la Comisión de Medio Ambiente de la Asamblea Nacional ya concluyeron que no? La misma respuesta dada a los otros inversionistas se aplica aquí. Construir una casa más en la Reserva Natural Laguna de Apoyo es un atentado contra el patrimonio natural. Nada ni nadie lo puede justificar. La laguna de Apoyo es para todos los nicaragüenses.

Apoyo properties and real estate Nicaragua
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Thursday, October 28, 2010

Our newest friend in Laguna de Apoyo

Nicaragua wildlife
A variegated squirrel was raised be the volunteers at Estacion Biologica. Photo by Jeffrey McCrary.

We have a frequent visitor to Estacion Biologica these days. He is a variegated squirrel (Sciurus variegatoides), a common species in the area. He is not yet mature, but he is reaching maturity rapidly. The variegated squirrel is among the most abundant and visible of wildlife species in the Pacific region of Nicaragua. Our variety in Laguna de Apoyo usually has a black back, sometimes dark or even light brown. The undersides and sides are white in our animals, although in other places, they might be red or dark. 

wildlife in Nicaragua

Nicaragua wildlife

wildlife in Nicaragua

wildlife Nicaragua
The little guy has taken to some of the staff, especially to Wyatt. Please come by and visit us and play with our new friend!
wildlife Nicaragua
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Monday, October 18, 2010

Biological Research Station Expands

The facilities of the Biological Research Station have just expanded! Our historic headquarters (and home to the program director Jeffrey McCrary) have been embroiled in a legal dispute four years, but as of last week, custody of the contested property was awarded to us again. We encountered the buildings in incredible disrepair. Roofs were falling, broken doors, leaking gutters, toilets out of service, piles of trash and mold throughout the building!

The Peace Project Nicaragua
Jeffrey takes a broom to an upstairs room. The squatters from The Peace Project had left the Biological Research Station in terrible disarray.

This toilet did not flush, but that did not deter the caretakers who were inhabiting the building from using it!

Mildew coats the floors in this room! Cleaning up after an illegal invasion by people calling themselves The Peace Project. What a name for squatters! 

Perhaps the worst of all aspects of what we encountered was a 10-meter antenna placed on the roof, without adequate security. Whoever placed this antenna was asking for the death of someone! We had to hire professionals to take it down while tied to nearby trees. 
The Peace Project Nicaragua
Illegal invaders acting under the supposed name The Peace Project Nicaragua illegally installed a communications antenna, which was removed immediately. It was installed unsafely, and fell during the process of dismanteling it. 

The Peace Project Nicaragua
Jeffrey conversing with the local police. The occupants of the property, claiming to operate as The Peace Project Nicaragua, resisted leaving, even after receiving a judicial order and two visits by the police, but eventually, they got the message and departed. They removed all their possessions and piled them into a neighboring yard:

The Peace Project Nicaragua
The caretakers of the squatters operating as The Peace Project Nicaragua eventually removed all their possessions and piled them into a neighboring yard.

We are grateful to all of you who have supported us in the conflict during the past two years (read here for more). We no longer work with former colleagues Kenneth R. McKaye and Eric P. van den Berghe! 

We are slowly preparing the property for use, with anticipated grand re-opening in several days. Please watch for coming announcements! And please visit us. 

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Fish Research in Laguna de Masaya

The Masaya volcanic complex, lying just north of Apoyo, also contains a lake full of fish-and very interesting fish! The FUNDECI/GAIA research team are executing a study of the Midas cichlid species complex in Lake Masaya, in search of evidence that sympatric speciation has also occurred in this lake, as has been demonstrated in Lake Apoyo.
Lake Masaya cichlids
Maarten fishing for new species. Photo by Jeffrey McCrary.
Here is Maarten Hogenkamp, fishing in Laguna de Masaya. And take another look at the foreground!!!! Yes, that is trash. This lake is severely damaged by solid waste and liquid waste from the municipalities of Masaya and Masatepe. Nonetheless, the lake has fish, and very interesting ones!

Midas cichlid research in Nicaragua
Lorenzo and Jeffrey examine the catch. Photo by Marlene Kroner.
Here, Lorenzo hauls in a juvenile Midas cichlid by harpoon, and passes it off to Jeffrey McCrary of FUNDECI/GAIA while Erico from the Masaya Volcano National Park looks on.

A new species from Lake Masaya. Photo by Jeffrey McCrary.
Some of the catch: a probable new species! FUNDECI/GAIA is working with Jay Stauffer from Penn State to describe new species in Lake Masaya.

fish research Nicaragua
Lorenzo and Maarten discuss the color details of the fish. Photo by Jeffrey McCrary.

Amphilophus fish Nicaragua
Maarten and Elmer at work. Photo by Jeffrey McCrary.
And yes, fishing also means.... repairing nets, and getting ready for the next round. 
Fish studies Nicaragua
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Sunday, September 26, 2010


Morpho helenor montezumae
Yes, butterflies can really look like that! It is Morpho helenor montezuma, a common butterfly in Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve. We completed the first phase of our studies on the butterflies and moths (members of the order Lepidoptera) earlier this year (2010), concluding with the publication of a listing of 220 species of butterflies and moths, of which 116 are new reports for the reserve, and 25 are new reports for Nicaragua. We are continuing with special effort placed on the monitoring of moths. Little is known about most groups of tropical moths.


The above moth is a typical example of the moths we are encountering in our present phase of study. We can not yet identify it or most of the moths we are capturing, but we are developing a database and slowly identifying the species in collaboration with experts in the field. Below are photos of another "unknown" and our light trap in action.



We have a reference collection of butterflies and moths on display for the public in Estacion Biologica: Our current lines of Lepidoptera study involve light traps for the moths, and fruit traps for butterflies of the family Nymphalidae (brushfoots). Would you like to work with us on butterfly and moth field studies? Please contact us! We have needs for volunteers, students, interns and collaborating scientists.
Working collection of Lepidoptera in Estacion Biologica FUNDECI/GAIA, Laguna de Apoyo Nature Reserve, Nicaragua.
Achalarus toxeus
Achalarus jalapus
Cogia cajeta eluina
Typhedanus ampyx
Astraptes anaphus annetta
Astraptes fulgerator azul
Pachyneuria licisca licisca
Pellicia arina
Myrinia raymundo
Bolla eusebius
Phocides belus
Epargyreus exadeus cruza
Epargyreus spina spina
Elbella scylla
Gorgythion begga pyralina
Gorgythion vox
Hylephila phyleus
Pyrgus oileus
Quasimellana eulogius
Antigonus erosus
Staphylus azteca
Staphylus mazans ascalaphus
Autochton zarex
Autochton bipunctatus
Cycloglypha thrasibulus thrasibulus
Quadrus contubernalis anicius
Quadrus cerialis
Mylon pelopidas
Sostrata bifasciata nordica
Atarnes sallei
Ouleus salvina
Xenophanes tryxus
Polyctor polyctor
Carrhenes calidius
Carrhenes fuscescens
Carrhenes meridensis
Heliopetes alana
Heliopetes laviana
Lerema liris
Polites vibex praeceps
Polites subreticulata
Cabares potrillo
Urbanus dorantes dorantes
Urbanus belli
Urbanus procne
Urbanus simplicius
Urbanus pronta
Urbanus doryssus doryssus
Urbanus evona
Polythrix asine
Polygonus savigny savigny
Codatractus cyda
Codatratcus bryaxis
Codatractus alcaeus alcaeus
Niconiades merenda
Perichares deceptus deceptus
Anatrytone mella
Saliana triangularis
Saliana longirostris
Battus ingenuus
Battus lydicas
Battus polydamas polydamas
Parides montezuma
Parides erithalion sadyattes
Parides iphidamas iphidamas
Parides photinus
Mimoides ilus branchus
Eurytides epidaus epidaus
Eurytides philolaus philolaus
Papilio anchisiades idaeus
Papilio thoas autocles
Papilio polyxenes asterius
Papilio victorinus
Ascia monuste monuste
Ganyra josephina josepha
Itaballia demophile
Leptophobia aripa aripa
Melete lycimnia isandra
Appias drusilla
Pieriballia viardi viardi
Anteos maerula
Anteos clorinde
Eurema arbela boisduvaliana
Eurema daira eugenia
Eurema proterpia
Eurema xanthochlora xanthochlora
Phoebis agarithe agarithe
Phoebis argante argante
Phoebis neocypris virgo
Phoebis philea philea
Phoebis statira jada
Phoebis sennae marcellina
Colia (Zerene) cesonia cesonia
Anaea troglodyta aidea
Archaeoprepona demophon centralis
Archaeoprepona camilla camilla
Consul fabius cecrops
Memphis morvus boisduvalii
Prepona omphale octavia
Siderone marthesia marthesia
Zaretis isidora
Zaretis ellops
Zaretis itys
Asterocampa idyja argus
Doxocopa callianira
Doxocopa laure laure
Doxocopa pavon
Libytheana carinenta mexicana
Adelpha basiloides basiloides
Adelpha fessonia
Adelpha iphiclus iphicleola
Adelpha lycorias melanthe
Colobura dirce dirce
Dynamie postverta mexicana
Historis acheronta acheronta
Historis odius dious
Marpesia chiron marius
Marpesia petreus tethys
Smyrna blomfildia datis
Biblis hyperia hyperia
Callicore pitheas
Eunica sydonia caresa
Eunica mygdonia mygdonia
Eunica monima modesta
Hamadryas amphinome mexicana
Hamadryas februa ferentina
Hamadryas glauconome glauconome
Hamadryas guatemalena guatemalena
Mestra dorcas amymone
Myscelia ethusa pattenia
Myscelia cyaniris cyaniris
Nica flavilla canthara
Temenis laothoe hondurensis
Anartia fatima fatima
Anartia jatrophae luteipicta
Anthanassa drusilla lelex
Anthanassa frisia tulcis
Chlosyne hippodrome hippodrome
Chlosyne theona
Chlosyne lacinia
Chlosyne melanarge
Eresia ithomioides alsina
Junonia evarete
Microtia elva
Siproeta epaphus epaphus
Siproeta stelenes biplagiata
Actinote thalia anteas
Agraulis vanillae incarnata
Altinote ozomene nox
Dione juno juno
Dione moneta poeyii
Dryadula phaetus
Dryas iulia moderata
Euptoieta hegesia hoffmanni
Eueides isabella eva
Heliconius charitonius charitonius
Heliconius erato
Heliconius hecale zuleika
Heliconius ismenius telchinia
Greta morgane oto
Mechanitis polymnia isthmia
Tighorea tarricina pinthas
Mechanitis lysimnia utemaia
Danaus plexippus nigrippus
Danaus eresimus montezuma
Eutresis hypereia theope
Lycorea cleobaea atergatis
Morpho helenor montezuma
Caligo telamonius memnon
Dynastor darius stygianus
Narope cyllastros testacea
Opsiphanes boisduvalii
Opsiphanes cassina fabricii
Opsiphanes tamarindi tamarindi
Magneuptychia libye
Yphthimoides renata
Cissia themis
Cissia similis
Cissia pompilia
Hermeuptychia hermes
Hermeuptychia sosybius
Pierella luna pallida
Taygetic laches laches
Taygetis mermeria excavata
Taygetis rufomarginata
Juditha caucana
Thisbe lycorias lycorias
Synargis mycone
Emesis tegula
Anteros carausius
Caria rhacotis
Lasaia sula sula
Mesosemia telegone telegone
Melanis cephise cephise
Calephelis sp.
Leptotes marina
Everes comyntas texanus
Hemiargus hanno zachaeina
Parrhasius polibetes
Panthyiades bathildis
Panthiades bitias
Panthiades phaleros
Ministrymon clytie
Calycopis isobeon
Evenus regalis
Tmolus echion
Pseudolycaena marsyas damo
Ascalapha odorata
Arsenura armida armida
Dysdaemonia boreas
Automeris hamata
Rothschildia lebeau
Eumorpha fasciatus fasciatus
Eumorpha satelitia licaon
Eumorpha vitis vitis
Protambulyx strigilis

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